What is the life cycle of our star, the Sun, will one day come to its end, is a well known fact. According to scientists, this cycle is about 10 billion years. Current age of our sun, approaching 5 billion years. This leads to a very interesting and important question: what exactly happens when the Sun reaches its limit? It all starts with the fact that over time the star will recycle all of its hydrogen into helium. Then it will start to die. Fortunately for us, it will happen a very long time.
Significantly increase the activity of greenhouse gases
One of the first things that happens after the Sun will produce all its hydrogen, it will be much brighter. The brighter becomes the star, the more solar energy is to our planet. Gases contained in our atmosphere, such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitric oxide work like a blanket, protecting our planet from excessive heat and allowing the stars to support her life. Since the Sun will work overtime in fact, these gases have to contain a larger amount of energy. On Earth will become very hot, the water will begin to evaporate and form dense clouds in the atmosphere.
These clouds, there would be some to protect the Earth from the increased radioactive radiation. However, after some time, heat will accumulate too much, and the oceans will begin to literally boil. From this moment, life on Earth can not exist. If at this point we’re not going to die, then eventually will die from lack of water and very strong heat.
The sun will first expand…
The sun will not only be brighter, but will significantly increase in size. Once the star runs out of its fuel for the fusion reaction, it will move into another phase of the life cycle. Will become a red giant. Despite the increased size, the actual temperature of the stars who are in the phase of red giants is lower than other stars only 2000-3000 degrees Celsius. At first glance it may seem that is a lot, but if it does not take into account the current temperature of the Sun, which can range from 5,000 to 9,000 degrees Celsius.
Despite the fact that such a fate awaits our light, not always the same thing happens with other stars. More compact, for example, called red dwarfs, are so weak that when they use up all their fuel, then just go out. True, the lifecycle of these stars lasts much longer than other types. On the other hand, blue and white giants can be so large that it is able to burn more heavy chemical elements up until eventually not develop a solid iron core. After that, they quanta collapse into the dark supernova.
…And then shrinks
This change in the Sun will not end. When the star will burn helium, it will not be able to do the same with carbon and eventually will shrink to a white dwarf. In this phase, the light will be much less in size compared to the original.
White dwarfs have a much lower energy, but have a long life span. Stars of this type will continue to exist in this form over the next billion years, until eventually not turn into so-called black dwarfs. Scientists can’t definitively say how much time this process will take, because the universe is not old enough to have at least the first black dwarfs!
Change the orbit of the Earth
It is obvious that by the time when our Sun will die, everything on Earth will perish, but this does not mean that the planet will stop. When the star reaches the red giant phase, it will expand at least three-quarters of the distance from the Earth.
Perhaps you thought that the Earth in this case, it will burn to the ground. But surprisingly, all is not so. With the expansion of the Sun and its approximation to our planet, the gravitational forces of the Earth and other neighboring planets would weaken. This weakening will cause the planet to move away from the Sun and is a safer orbit. For mercury and Venus fate will be much worse – they just devour. Of course, on our planet, all life forms will disappear, so this “escape” the planet will be virtually meaningless.
On other planets you may receive life
As mentioned above, by the time the Sun will become a red giant, life on Earth will disappear, but this does not exclude the possibility that she can go somewhere else. Jupiter and Saturn – two giant planets with lots of satellites that can be inhabited.
These satellites, like Europa and Ganymede, appear to be the most appropriate. Yes, they are now completely covered with ice (in Europe, so in General there is a subsurface ocean, according to reports of astronomers), but with the increase in size of the Sun will increase and the area of influence of its light, which can melt the ice, thereby creating an environment suitable for the existence of familiar life forms.
The death of the Sun will be accompanied by more significant galactic event
Of course, this event would not be caused by the death of our Sun, but will take place simultaneously with him. The milky Way and Andromeda are moving towards each other at a speed of 402,000 kilometers per hour. The two galaxies will meet when the life of our stars is coming to an end. A collision is imminent. Event of a collision of a giant space structures, of course, can be scary, but in reality, our Solar system including the Sun itself, this event will not affect, and they will be fine.
True, alright everything’s gonna be only until such time as the star decides to complete their life cycle. Its phase transition will continue after the two galaxies will appear one new. If it turns out that somehow life anywhere else in our system continues, one can only imagine what a striking picture of the colliding gas and stars will be visible on the night sky.
At the external borders of the Solar system to become warmer
We have said that the Sun becomes bigger and brighter at some time during his death. This causes that are close to it the planet will turn into a scorched wasteland, but what about planets and dwarf planets, which are now “freeze” in the distance?
Take, for example, Pluto. Right now the temperature on the dwarf planet varies from -233 to 223 is degrees Celsius. But as soon as the Sun’s radius will increase, Pluto, and other distant planets and celestial bodies, will be able to get him warm. It is unlikely that the result on these planets may receive life, as this one will not be enough heat, but they will be really much warmer.
However, everything changes when the Sun will become a white dwarf. But at least by the time the outer boundaries of the Solar system also at least once to feel the warmth of our star.
People on Earth just do not survive
Perhaps life at the time of the death of the Sun will appear somewhere else, but on Earth it won’t be long unconditionally. Unfortunately, everything we’ve worked for and built, will be destroyed along with the death of our star. The surface of the planet will become so hot that life will be impossible. Even if we somehow create some kind of protection from extreme temperatures, we are still unlikely to be able to grow something in the quality of the food, however, and access to water, we, too, will not. Everything that is necessary for survival, will cease to exist.
Generally, in some degree strange to imagine that at this point has absolutely everything will lose its meaning. Therefore, we can only hope that somewhere another life to start all over again. It is very unlikely that it will look or at least resemble the human race. And if it will have similar features, then it will take at least a few billion years for that life-forms have evolved at least to our level today.
Asteroids leave our system
We all got used to the fact that our Solar system is a variety of different asteroids. But they are all at the death of the Sun and transition into the phase of the white dwarf, too, will face a serious problem. By this time Jupiter and other distant planets will change their orbits because of the radical changes that are related to our sun. Since Jupiter has a huge mass, centre of mass in the system is likely to be it. He has a very powerful gravitational force. It is enough to change the orbit of asteroids, and some of them do to throw in the Solar system. These space rocks can also be thrown in the direction of a white dwarf or just milled gravitational changes in the dust.
Scientists can make such predictions by monitoring existing white dwarf stars. Despite the fact that you need to find out many features about the Sun, when it enters this phase, the scientists noted that the area around white dwarfs contain a lot of dust. This is likely to be direct evidence that earlier near the star could be some solid celestial bodies that with the death of their stars has turned into something that was seen by the astronomers.
People can try to find another chance
It is difficult to try to predict what technology we will be able to achieve in the future, but it is quite interesting to provide such opportunities. We already closely approached to see on the public roads self-driving cars and other futuristic vehicles. Maybe by that time they would go for our Solar system is very bad, we will be able to develop ways to travel on deep space distances. We already know of places that could be inhabited, so when the time comes, we would be able to go back there. It is possible, by the time our race will be able to become an interplanetary species and inhabit many other solar systems.
Today’s news talking about the preparations NASA to fly to Mars. Many other companies, both private and public, is also Express a desire to become the first colonizers of the red planet. If this mission does succeed, then for the human future is going to be a revolution. Of course, the flight to Mars, and colonization will not be as extensive as it could be with a move in another galaxy or even solar system, but, as was said at the time Neil Armstrong, “one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind”.
We can only hope that we will be able to avoid catastrophic events until, as we will have the chance to engage in the colonization of the Universe. Most of what is “out there”, it remains unknown. Even while our telescopes powerful enough to discern the features of those or other planets in other systems. In most cases, everything is done on the basis of predictions and data analysis. We do not yet know the scale of the Universe, as the scope of all our possibilities. But even if the death of the Sun now may introduce to us as the death of everything living that we know, in fact this may not be so. The only thing we know or at least would like to hope that our minds can send us into the Universe much farther than we can now imagine.