Member of the organizing Committee of the Gaidar forum Ivan Fedotov — on the development of innovations in the regions that need to be done to improve the quality of education and what is the positive process of closing universities
Photo: TASS/Anton novoderezhkin
On Thursday in Moscow begins work next Gaidar forum in which government officials, experts and foreign investors will discuss trends in socio-economic development. Prior to the event, member of organizing Committee and Vice rector of the Ranepa Ivan Fedotov told “Izvestia” about the difference between the forum this year from the previous one, why not only from the funding depends on the technological development of regions, both to increase the demand for quality education and why this can be facilitated by a professional army.
— Ivan Vladimirovich, what distinguishes the Gaidar forum this year?
— The main tradition remained unchanged — new business year to open Hydroskin a forum for discussion of the main trends of socio-economic development. This year can be noted and an unprecedented composition of the foreign participants. The event will be attended by five Prime Ministers and two presidents.
— Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev has confirmed his participation?
Yes. The Prime Minister in 2013 has never missed our event. This year is no exception. He will participate in a very interesting discussion “Russia and the world: choosing priorities”, which will discuss the main trends of socio-economic development in the world and Russia’s place in this process.
In addition, there will be a large number of tier experts who have international recognition from Australia, USA, Germany, Austria. The share of foreign participants — 20%. And at the moment have announced their participation in the 2000 foreign specialists more than last year. This suggests that the site of the Gaidar forum, being a platform, educational institutions, convenient to our foreign partners to engage in dialogue, not looking at sanctions.
— Number of participants from abroad is increasing, or is the recovery growth after the downturn caused by the sanctions?
No, it’s not recovery. The forum will be held for the eighth time, and during this time we never saw a downturn. Only the growing interest from foreign investors.
— In your opinion, what are the most interesting events are scheduled within the forum?
— We have a total of 93 events scheduled in the program and outside the program — about two dozen. But I can’t identify something, to say that some debate will be more important than others. The first day, for example, will start with a business Breakfast Russian governors and foreign investors. This event is timed to the 25th anniversary of foreign investment in Russia. Guests — heads of regions, Ministers and representatives of the companies who invest in our country. Also on the day scheduled for the report of the world Bank. This is a profound complex study of the Russian economy and opportunities for economic growth. The report was prepared over one and a half years and will be presented here. In addition, on the first day will present the results of ratings of innovative business and development of the regions of AIRR (Association of innovative regions of Russia. — “News”).
What did the ratings? Does improving the situation of innovation development in the Russian regions?
— In some regions there is a development, in some — no. In the group of advanced regions included 27 subjects (strong and medium-strong innovators), 22 of the region form the group of middle peasants, 36 — in lagging. This pattern is generally consistent with last year — 29, 30 and 34 of the subject.
— In the lead, naturally rich entities?
. The main development occurs in regions that are defined by their specialization. Of course, we do not take leaders of ratings — Moscow and Saint Petersburg. It is clear that here are concentrated the main financial flows. Tatarstan traditionally in third place, he is showing steady development in all areas.
I note that over the past two years the conditions for the development of high-tech industries, that is, the concentration of resources in General has improved in the Tomsk region, Altai Krai and the Republic of Bashkortostan.
Take, for example, Altai Krai, which has shown amazing results, having risen in the rating by 17 points. While there are no innovative companies. Advancement with innovation happened due to the fact that the region managed to transform its system by introducing new technologies in agriculture. Innovation is not only the production of chips and high-tech equipment.
— It was imported technologies?
— No, Russian.
And Altai region is quite prosperous in terms of the level of public debt…
— Yes, but it is not a measure for innovation. For example, the Kaluga oblast is a region with considerable debt, but it has a good position in the ranking for innovation.
— The President in address to the Federal Assembly stated the need for technological revolution, which should provide a breakthrough and the rate of economic growth above the global average. In your opinion, due to what can be done for such a breakthrough?
— First and foremost by the desire to implement the technology. I travel a lot around the region and see a lot of innovative enterprises, research and development, which nobody uses. Among them are quite unique, but their or are afraid to implement, or there is a very long chain of implementation.
The most innovative industry we belong to the oil and gas sector, because there are very large costs and seeking to reduce them. Here is a simple example: the number of domestic developments in the field of construction surpasses — there are a huge number of new materials that are more durable and better than their Western counterparts, but they do not implement due to the large number of administrative barriers. And the reluctance in the first place comes from the officials who make decisions about the purchase of one or another innovative product. We are afraid of innovation, afraid of everything new. If there is a regional head who is not afraid to implement new things, such entities always emerge the leaders.
— Not easier, as before, to buy technology abroad?
— When there is money — of course, it’s easier. And when funds becomes smaller, it is necessary to think how to get and best, and for less money.
— Here the effect is still the effect of sanctions?
— You know, sanctions, which limited the supply of new technologies and has suspended the joint development with foreign partners, have given impetus to the development of new industries. Take machine tools. Why was it necessary to produce this equipment, if it was easier to buy? And now arose the demand in the domestic market, which led to the revival of the production — for example, in the Lipetsk region. Therefore, in any phenomenon, there are negative and positive.
— The President in address to the Federal Assembly also talked a lot about human capital, which needs to develop. You are a specialist in the field of education, which in recent years constantly trying to save. How to develop human capital, if we have underfunded education? Or here matter is not in money, but in the quality of Finance is not affected?
— You raised a very important issue, the demand for quality education. There is a tendency for individualization of education, as well as on dissemination of interdisciplinary education. And precisely because the development of high technology. Roughly speaking, it may be necessary, for example, a driller of wells with knowledge of the Arabic language. A hypothetical example, of course. If the state will create adequate rules of the game, the citizens will make demands on another level the quality of education, to other programs, other methods of technology — and universities are very quick to adapt.
But while there is demand for good education, it makes no sense and stimulate. Now the demand for quality education is largely testimonials due to universal conscription. The male graduates are in universities are not good for training, but to be able to four years to avoid conscription. In the end, in our country a lot of people with higher education (according to this indicator we occupy a leading position in the world), but not with quality. You do not need a large number of people with diploma — requires a large number of professionals with specialty.
But it turns out that, until the professional army and act of universal responsibility, young people will continue to shape the demand for higher education.
— Of course, if the person needs not knowledge, and the possibility of four years not to go into the army, all will receive the diploma for the diploma.
But then, perhaps, a more balanced approach to the choice of forms of education could form the elimination of the budget? The more they become less…
— Do not agree. They do not become smaller — the number of budget places can best meet the needs of employers. There is simply no other way of funding. If you don’t invent new mechanisms of financing of educational institutions, this will continue. Education is the most inert. In order for this edifice to deploy, need a lot of time.
But universities are in any case close that was the result of a demographic hole 1990-h. And the society takes it as a negative process.
It is a very proper process. Closing the bad universities, and remain good. The recession will pass and turn into a kind of growth that need to be prepared. What happens in 15 years when the school will start to finish the children born during the rise? They will live in a completely different technological world. I think we will see serious turmoil in the domestic education market in terms of transformation of educational institutions. Because someone will be able to meet these challenges, and some don’t. Will survive the best, and that’s good.
But it will be public universities or those who will work on the order of business?
Now, all the leading universities conduct the program without consultation with employers. Truly the best and quality educational institutions allow a person to educate himself all his life. Technology is evolving so quickly that a successful person should always learn, it should be the choice of the range of universities that it needs to maintain itself competitive in the profession that he chose. So I think the future is just a continuous, deeply personal education with continuous learning and interdisciplinarity.