The history of NFC technology takes its beginning in 1983. Then electrical engineer Charles Walton received a patent for “portable radio frequency emitter-ID”. Almost 20 years later, in March 2004, Nokia, Sony and Royal Philips Electronics was organized by the NFC Forum, a non — profit Association for standardization and promotion of NFC technology. In 2006 appeared the first specification NFC and released the first commercial NFC phone chip Nokia 6131. In 2011, the NFC Forum has joined Google. Now, this technology supports large number of mobile devices running iOS and Android. How it works — about it in today’s issue!
So, NFC is a wireless korotkometrazhka technology that operates at 13.56 MHz, used for industrial, medical and scientific purposes. NFC is a logical extension of RFID technology, and its main difference was the limited range. While the reading distance of RFID tags can reach several hundreds of meters, NFC tags are available in the range of 10 centimeters. NFC is always the initiator and the target. The initiator actively generates an RF field that can affect a passive target. It is also possible NFC connection between two devices provided that each device is turned on. Thanks to its compact size and low power consumption NFC can be used in small gadgets.
For data transmission of NFC uses the encoding with different modulation index depending on the data rate. The NFC device is able to receive and transmit data. Thus, they can control the RF field and to detect contradictions if the received signal does not match the passed.
Currently, there are three main applications of NFC. The first and most common is the emulation of cards for contactless payments. A smartphone with NFC can impersonate a Bank card or travel ticket for the metro. In this case, the card data is not stored in the phone memory and on a special chip, similar to what is used in cards of the EMV standard. It encrypts all the data, controls the authentication process, and triggers the payment transaction.
NFC technology was actively developed not only in the banking sector. It is used for electronic ticketing. For example, in Moscow you can pay for public transport, attaching the phone to the turnstile, or at all to record your travel directly to the smartphone.
A second range of NFC reader mode. In this mode, the smartphone acts as a scanner NFC tags containing various additional information. The last time the NFC tag began to displace barcodes in Western stores. You can find them on food products in supermarkets and by bringing your NFC-enabled device, to find out the expiration date and composition of the goods. NFC-tags are used to display interactive advertising.
The third mode is called NFC peer-to-peer. In this case, two devices communicate with each other to exchange information. Thus it is possible to transfer contacts from one smartphone to another or setup Wi-Fi router to the mobile device.