The idea of the trains on magnetic pillows have appeared in the early twentieth century, and the first prototype — “Transrapid 02” — was only established in 1971 in West Germany. 8 years later was created an improved model of the Maglev – “Transrapid 05”, first licensed to transport passengers. A test track with a length of 908 meters was built in Hamburg for the exhibition IVA 79. The maximum speed of the train was 75 km/h. But the first commercial Maglev train came in ‘ 84 in the English Birmingham. 600-metre-high line connected the airport terminal and the railway station. At the same time work on the creation of Maglev started in Japan, South Korea and China. How does the Maglev train – this is in the news today!
Maglev, or magnetic levitation train, is a composition, which is held over the road and moves by the power of the electromagnetic field. The basis of Maglev necessary basic property of magnets: equal poles repel, and different – attracted. At the moment there are two main technologies magnetic suspension: EMS electromagnetic and electrodynamic EDS.
The trains of the first type under the bottom of the car are attached powerful magnets in centimeters from the T-shaped steel blade. When the train moves, the magnetic flux passing through the loop of the fabric, constantly changing and in it there are strong induced currents. They create a powerful magnetic field that repels the magnetic suspension train. The composition is levitated by the repulsion of the same poles and the attraction of different poles of the magnets. A special system keeps the size of the gap between the magnets 15 mm constant. When increasing the gap increases the strength of the current in the bearing magnets and brings the wagon with a decrease — decreases the current, and the gap increases. Also on the electromagnetic Maglev establish a special battery that allows the train to levitate when you stop.
The movement of the train is a linear motor – switches between the stator windings, creating a traveling magnetic field. The stator of the train is drawn into the field and moves the whole composition. With a frequency of 4000 times per second, the change of poles on magnets by alternately feeding current. Change forces and current frequency allows you to adjust the speed of the composition.
There is also an electrodynamic EDS-technique in which the movement of the Maglev is due to the interaction of the two fields. One of them is created in the road surface, and the second on the body of the train. Unlike EMS with conventional magnets, the EDS uses superconducting magnets, which can conduct electricity even after you turn off the power supply.
Also, EDS does not require special system of adjustment of the distance between the train and the tracks. When contraction occurs, the force of repulsion, which returns magnets to original position. While increasing distance increases the force of gravity, which also leads to stabilization of the system.
Another difference, according to the technology of EDS; the need for additional wheels when driving at low speeds (up to 150 km/h). When the high wheel speed are separated from the ground and the train flies at a distance of several centimeters from the surface. Also worth noting is that due to the strong magnetic fields on the body train the necessary magnetic protection shielding.
Maglev is the fastest ground-based public transport. The speed record was set by Japanese train Shinkansen L0 in April 2015, he clocked up 603 km/h.