Israeli archaeologists have discovered the oldest remains of Homo sapiens dated back to the era from 194 to 177 thousand years ago. According to the article published in the journal Science, the discovery is forcing scientists to push back the time of exit of modern humans from Africa about 50 thousand years ago. Previously, the oldest human remains outside Africa dated to the period of 90-120 thousand years ago.
Most modern scholars agree with the hypothesis of African origin of modern humans. According to this hypothesis, people subspecies sapiens appeared in Africa about 200-400 thousand years ago. In the era from 135 to 115 thousand years ago modern humans migrated from the continent. Different versions say that this migration occurred either through North Africa or through Arabia. The exact reasons for this migration science does not know, but according to one of assumptions, this could happen as a result of a severe drought on the continent. Scientists believe that the first migration attempt was unsuccessful – the ancient people would either perish or return to the continent, but notes that recently, archaeologists discovered the remains of ancient settlers in southern China. There in the course of archaeological excavations unearthed the skeletons Dating from the period from 120 to 80 years ago.
Researchers believe that a second wave of migration began 75 thousand years ago and could happen shortly before or after the eruption of the SUPERVOLCANO Toba in Sumatra. This time the transition has been successful – about 70 thousand years ago the pioneers went to the South and South-East Asia. About 50 thousand years ago humans reached Australia, and 40 thousand years ago to Europe. About 15 thousand years ago humans appeared in America.
The article of the journal Science describes how an anthropologist Yisrael of hershkovitz from tel Aviv University and his colleagues from the US and eight other countries in 2002 found in the Israeli cave Mislia the left upper part of the human jaw. The researchers analyzed the findings and determined the age by using three methods: the uranium-thorium method, thermoluminescence and electron-spin-resonance Dating. Research scientists conducted in three different laboratories. All were obtained close date: analysis showed age from 194 to 177 years. The remaining teeth in the jaw the scientists pointed out that it could belong to a Homo sapiens – it was noted the morphology and structure of the teeth from the teeth of Neanderthals and other subspecies of humans.
The authors also note that not far from the cave Milii scientists found stone tools, had the characteristic features of Levallois technology appeared in the middle Paleolithic. These guns were made as sapiens and Neanderthals. Similar tools, scientists have discovered in Paleolithic encampments sapiens in the Northern, Eastern and southern Africa. This allowed the scientists to suggest that the Levallois tools in the Levant, too, can be linked to the arrival of people. Also the new finding is confirmed by recent genetic data, according to which interbreeding of sapiens and Neanderthals might have happened previously 200 thousand years ago.
“An earlier migration from Africa suggests that cultural or genetic exchanges with local ancient populations occurred earlier than previously thought. This is consistent with recent genetic evidence of an earlier human migration out of Africa,” explained Rolf Kam, paleoanthropologist from Binghamton University (USA).