It would seem that at the present stage of technology development in a living organism if and should remain “white spots”, it is only at the level of molecules and similar compounds. However, it is not so simple. For example recently a group of researchers from the United States and Spain have discovered a new type of cell. Moreover, their shape is so unusual that it got its own name.
According to the publication Nature Communications, the new geometric figure called scotoil (scutoid). It was discovered in the tissues of the epithelium and due to its shape, as it turned out, it scutiny provide flexibility and density structure. Epithelium, as is known, lines the surface of internal organs, and its cells densely adjoin to each other. Previously it was thought that epithelial cells are mostly shaped like a prism or a truncated pyramid.
In their work the authors decided to model the structure of cells to determine the exact structure. For this purpose we used the Voronoi diagram. Modeling has shown that dense tissue must be present not only prisms and truncated pyramids, but cells are more complex forms. In order to perform the desired function, the cells it was necessary to have 5 or 6 faces, one of which would be triangular in shape. Its name scotoil received from the Latin word scutellum triangular, chitinous plates of insects, which can easily be seen, for example, on the back bed bugs.
Moreover, a detailed study of the anatomical structures revealed that scutiny actually present in the tissues of some living beings. For example, they were discovered in salivary glands of Drosophila tissues and embryos of fish Danio rerio. Scientists believe that scutiny should be and in the epithelium of man. Thus, according to the scientists, the discovery of new such small types of geometric structures will improve the methods of growing artificial organs for transplant.