Floods, droughts, hurricanes, forest fires, once rare weather events are becoming more common and powerful because of climate change. And it is impossible to deny. At the same time, more and more people move to cities around the world. This is a dangerous combination, as urban populations are more at risk of destruction from global warming. Millions of people worldwide may be at risk only because of where I live now.
But a simple relocation of populations at risk, nothing will — for example, moving the fishing village will leave people without a livelihood, and the transport industry in the city will mean further destruction of the natural environment. We need to find more sustainable long-term solution is to create a home that will be hardy enough to survive frequent and extreme natural whims, without increasing carbon emissions into the atmosphere.
Experienced designers, architects and engineers worked diligently in finding a solution that would satisfy both of these problems: they developed a house that can survive future conditions on the Earth without damaging our environment even more. Here are some of the most creative ways by which we can adapt our habitats and to mitigate the negative effects of climate change.
Silaging is the practice of creating permanent settlements on structures located in areas outside the jurisdiction of any country — is becoming increasingly popular. In April 2017 this term was added to the Oxford dictionary of the English language, and with it came a new way of life, which uses 71% virtually untapped the surface of our planet — the ocean.
The sea levels were rising even faster than experts predicted, therefore, private firms, government, and researchers are increasingly turning their attention to the oceans. Open waters far from any land, is not the most attractive or the available space for settlement, but as the melting ice caps and the flooding of populated areas, we may have to evolve and adjust to life in the water.
Many projects, some in development, some completed, aiming to transform the ocean to a new land with sand or fill. Such projects, for example, in the United Arab Emirates has significantly expanded the inhabited area.
But add sushi does not mean to solve the problem with the tides and sea-level rise. Alternative: settle on the water surface on a floating island.
The concept of a settlement on water is not new: the inhabitants of lake Titicaca began to build their villages hundreds of years ago on a floating, interconnected rafts of floating reeds.
Seasteading Institute, a global team of biologists, engineers, investors, and environmentalists gathered in 2008 with an ambitious goal: to design a modular, fully functional and floating “eco-village”. Floating Island Project was to use concrete structures to floating platforms, are also enshrined at the ocean floor. These Islands can be moved and rebuilt in accordance with the needs of the inhabitants of the island. His initial design allowed 250 people live on 11 platforms with the possibility of further additions. Instead of living independently on land, the “floating island” was specially built for protected waters, and it was still possible to reach from shore.
In January, the government of French Polynesia, a collection of 118 Islands stretching for over 2000 kilometers across the southern Pacific, signed a Memorandum with the Seasteading Institute and affiliated startup Blue Frontiers to begin the development of a pilot project of a floating island in 2020.
Seasteading Institute has proposed to build the first island village in 2020 in the lagoon off the coast of South Tahiti. The floating island will be tied to the bottom of the ocean about a kilometer from the shore, with platforms the size of a Golf Playground. “We have bungalows, we have flats, apartments, research institutions, underwater restaurant,” said in an interview with NBC News, Joe Quirke, President of the Seasteading Institute. “It will be an independent tourist attraction, demonstration of a stable society”.
The Institute will use the floating village of Tahiti to test a range of sustainable technologies, such as using recycled plastics and the local coconut fiber as building materials. This will show whether people live like this and whether ecotourism to be a viable basis for the local economy.
Floating Islands particularly acute need of French Polynesia — a narrow proximity of the Islands to the sea makes them vulnerable to sea level rise over the next century. The newest model predicts that by the year 2100 will be under water from 5 to 12 percent of the Islands. Thousands of people live on a few metres above sea level, so a disaster could happen at any moment. And it’s not just the sea level rise — more severe and frequent storms caused by warming seas can be an even more serious threat.
Pinning from the ocean floor means that the very floating island is heavily exposed to bad weather. Even in calm waters, can have devastating consequences for the Islands. Access to basic needs like fresh water and fuel also be a problem — floating communities will be difficult to fully get rid of dependence on mainland support.
House of yachts-amphibious
The transition to the ocean may be useful not only for those who need it most, but for those looking for luxury. Design company Arkup promises runs on the energy of the sun “luxurious and livable yacht” for those who can spare 2-3 million dollars.
Rectangular 25-metre vessel Arkup accommodates four bedrooms and more than 371 square meters of luxury. Electric thruster in the lower part of the boat, move the boat. Four 13-metre hydraulic blade (long tubular protrusions) on each corner lift it above the surface of the ocean.
The company promises to bring modern, environmentally friendly technologies in its habitable yacht. The ship is completely powered by solar energy and contains its own water purification systems, as well as local waste management, allowing the ship to function outside of the grid.
Stronger storms of the future probably won’t be a problem. Architect and partner Arkup Cohen Olthuis said that livable boat can withstand winds at speeds of 251 km/h, equivalent to category 4 hurricane.
While the initial expenses for this sort of life are definitely the large, renewable energy and clean rainwater will mean that yacht owners do not have to pay any bills. And possibly taxes.
Arkup plans to begin construction of the first prototype in 2017, in Miami. Olthuis believes that in Miami, Tokyo and new York will appear more floating households in the next 5-10 years.
Erode the storm
Climate change is likely to make hurricanes more intense. Hurricane season 2017 fell into this trend, although the storm was not more than usual, they were very powerful and broke the 124-year record.
Reconstruction of the communities destroyed by such storms will be slow and expensive — in August, the Harvey hurricane caused damage in the amount of 180 billion US dollars, becoming one of the most expensive natural disasters in U.S. history. It is obvious that houses need to build so that they are more durable, especially in regions prone to hurricanes.
Design company Deltec Homes creates living spaces, designed to withstand catastrophic storms. Model home Deltec all round that the wind around the structure and not concentrated on one side. Internal structure supporting the floors, diverge like spokes on a wheel, which further strengthens the structure. Framing lumber used in homes, Deltec, can withstand up to 1200 pounds per square inch, making it two times stronger than standard material for frames.
Windows are made of particularly durable glass that can withstand adverse weather conditions. Unlike ordinary Windows with vinyl or aluminum frames resistant to hurricane impact-resistant Windows can withstand winds up to 320 kilometres per hour. Glass is treated so as not to crumble into small fragments, which is one of the biggest dangers for people when storms cause damage to buildings. Each house is from 225 000 to 320 000 USD, depending on size.
Deltec has built more than 5,000 houses in over 30 countries. So far none of them have been destroyed by the harsh weather. “I think, inevitably, whether in 10 or 50 years that the vast majority of homes ultimately will be built that way,” says Deltec President Steve Linton.
Environmentally friendly housing
Struggle with harsh weather is just one of the ways of combating climate change. Traditional construction of houses requires energy and materials that exacerbate the effects of climate change.
Reduce the impact new homes have on the environment can be achieved by choosing environmentally friendly materials and renewable energy — another great way to mitigate the effects of global warming. For example, builders can choose recycled or natural materials — straw, untreated lumber and non-toxic paints and finishes.
Simon Dale, the homeowner and Builder from the UK, brings the concept of “green” homes to the extreme. In a pioneering eco-village in Wales he built a house, which is very similar to the dwelling of a science fiction novel by Tolkien “the Hobbit”. The house in which they live Dale, his wife and two children, costs just $ 4,000, and its construction took four months.
The house hugs the hill, protecting it from the weather. The frame is made of oak extracted from local forests. The floors and structural steel made from scrap. The building is insulated with straw.
Although such eco-friendly homes are difficult to implement on a global scale, they create a precedent. They show that the construction of houses of this kind is indeed possible.
Tubular lunar settlements
As the world population grows and climate change makes habitat on Earth is unpredictable, people may have to seek refuge somewhere else. Moreover, work is already underway — for decades we’ve been scanning the skies in search of planets that could shelter a human life, looking for water on the surface of Mars and build (at least mentally) missiles that can take on Mars for 100 people at a time.
The moon appears to be the closest possible step for future space exploration, according to many space experts. People were not on the moon since 1972, but may soon return.
Overcoming the harsh conditions on the lunar surface and establish a permanent base — a difficult feat, because the Moon is not very welcoming to people. One day (and night) lasts 14 earth days (a full day is a little more than 29 earth days). The moon has very little atmosphere, so people will have nothing to breathe, and the temperature precariously — lifting up to 123 degrees Celsius in the day and falling to -233 degrees at night. The streams of charged particles regularly wash over the landscape, making life on the moon is difficult and dangerous.
Instead of building a base on the lunar surface where it will be vulnerable to severe conditions, we could build a habitat in a newly discovered lava tunnels. According to the Japan aerospace exploration Agency, these massive cavity sufficiently large and permeable, that they could accommodate entire cities.
At the Global lunar conference 2010 in Beijing scientists have developed a detailed view of how a lunar base might look like in 2050. Buildings should be dome-shaped to match the undulating lines the surface of the moon.
“Inside lava tubes are round dome through which we can see the blue Earth and the midnight Sun,” says Bernard FEIN, Executive Director of the International working group on lunar exploration.
Johann-Dietrich wörner, CEO of the European space Agency has its own idea of what might be life on the moon: “moon village”. Although the village of Werner needs to be the result of international cooperation, the design firm Foster + Partners turned it into a full three-dimensional render. The home is presented with a number of related domes and the colony will be constructed near the South pole of the moon to maximize the flow of sunlight.
In the absence of an atmosphere that could protect people from meteorites and solar radiation, designers can see the use of local materials to protect future residents.
Construction begins with the lunar lander, on Board of which there are two inflatable domes that will be the first sketches of the environment. Then a robotic 3D printer will spend three months collecting lunar dust, carefully homeland soil layers and the foam forming a protective layer around the inflatable dome. Complete structure can accommodate up to four people.
To the moon and beyond
The creation of a lunar base can only be the first step as you move humans farther into the Solar system. Mars has long captured the public imagination and private space agencies funded by the state and the government, are working to send manned spacecraft to the Red planet. However, there is still a lot of obstacles that must be overcome before place on the planet a permanent base, the atmosphere on Mars consists mostly of carbon dioxide, the temperature is very low, and the dust storm threat.
In 2015, NASA launched its first competition to create 3D-printed dwellings, encouraging the participants to develop a Martian home with the use of local resources and 3D-printed possibilities.
Team Space Exploration Architecture and Clouds Architecture Office won the first prize for the creation of a Mars Ice House. This project uses 3D printer to conclude the structure in a thick layer of ice produced on the surface of Mars. The ice forms a blanket around the Central dwelling is a two — storey structure, delivered to the Martian surface from Earth. The space between the ice blanket and the outer part of the dwelling forms a buffer to protect the residents from harmful elements on the surface of Mars.