We live in a three dimensional Universe with three spatial dimensions and one of time. However, the experiments of two groups of scientists showed that the presence of the fourth spatial dimensions is indeed possible and it is not limited to a simple up and down directions, left and right, and forward and backward.
You should immediately note that these findings contradict the known laws of physics, were based on very complex calculations, partly theoretical experiments and using the laws of quantum mechanics.
Comparing the results of observation of two specially created two-dimensional environments, two independent teams of scientists from Europe and the United States failed to detect a path in some fourth spatial dimension, to generate the so-called quantum Hall effect — a phenomenon of the conductivity of two-dimensional gas at low temperatures in strong magnetic fields.
“Physically we have no 4-dimensional space, but we can achieve a 4-dimensional quantum Hall effect with the help of low-dimensional systems, since vysokonapornoj system is encoded in its complex structure,” says Mikael Rechtsman, Professor at the University of Pennsylvania.
“We might be able to come up with new physics in higher dimension, and then create the device with this advantage in lower dimensions.”
In other words, the three-dimensional object casts a two dimensional shadow, which you can guess about the form of these objects. Watching for certain real physical three-dimensional system, we are able to understand something about their four-dimensional nature, since, according to physicists, three-dimensional objects can also represent the shadow of four-dimensional objects, which is manifested in lower dimensions. All this can lead to some fundamental new discoveries in science.
Due to very complicated calculations, which in 2016 was issued the Nobel prize, we now know that the quantum Hall effect indicates the existence of a fourth dimension in space. Recent experiments two teams of physicists, published in the journal Nature, give us an example of the effects that is the fourth dimension can have.
European team of scientists have cooled atoms to a temperature close to absolute zero, using lasers to put them in a two-dimensional lattice. Applying quantum “pump” to excite caught of atoms, physicists have noticed slight variations in movement that correspond to the manifestations of four-dimensional quantum Hall effect, which indicates the possibility of access to this fourth dimension.
The American team of physicists have used lasers, but to control the light passing through the glass block. Simulating the effect of an electric field on charged particles, the researchers were able to observe the effects of four-dimensional quantum Hall effect.
According to scientists, both experiments complement each other.
Of course, physical access to this four-dimensional world we have (as we are trapped in three-dimensional space), but scientists believe that through quantum mechanics we will be able to learn more about four-dimensional space and to expand our limited knowledge about the Universe.
For clarity, I advise you to watch the video below. It shows how a character from two-dimensional platforming suddenly finds himself in a three-dimensional world. According to our perspective, we may feel that we are still in a two-dimensional world, but as we travel we will see some distortion of space as three-dimensional world will be superimposed on two-dimensional plane. Similar distortions have been seen by scientists in the above experiments. They also pointed out the existence of four-dimensional space which we cannot see physically, but the effects of which are superimposed on our three-dimensional plane.
Despite the fact that physically we can’t get into four-dimensional space, we got proof of his existence and a clearer picture of how it works. Scientists, in turn, want to use the results of these observations for more detailed analysis. Who knows, maybe in the course of further work, they will be able to make other discoveries.